Get your patent grant quicker with the Pacific Alliance and PROSUR PPH

Rebeca Nieto
IP Expert at Latin America IPR SME Helpdesk

Over the past few years, Intellectual Property Offices around the world have been busy preparing and negotiating Patent Prosecution Highways (PPH) agreements.

Better known by its abbreviation, the PPH is a system of bilateral and multilateral agreements particularly aimed at reducing the costs and time of patent examinations among applicants and participating patent offices. For doing so, the system enables an applicant with allowable/ granted claims in a patent application of an Office of Earlier Examination (OEE) to obtain an accelerated process examination of sufficiently corresponding claims in applications filed (but not yet examined) in other offices -Office of Later Examination (OLE)-.

It must, however, be noted that under PPH the OLE agrees to expedite the examination process by using the data and information provided by the OEE; but following the territoriality principle of patents, it reserves the right to grant or deny the patent.

In Latin America, two regional key networks have been created, namely, Pacific Alliance and PROSUR.

On July 1st, 2016 the PPH Pilot Program of the Pacific Alliance, made up of Chile, Mexico, Colombia and Peru, came into force. Some months later, on September 15th, the PPH Pilot Program of PROSUR, formed by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, came into force. Nonetheless, Brazil adherence to the PPH was on December 19th, 2016, while the final entry into force of Ecuador still  awaits the internal approval of its Government.

These Pilot Programs are expected to last 3 years, and renewable for an additional one. As we will see below, their implementation is carried out according to the guides prepared by the participating Industrial Property Offices, which establish the requirements, conditions and procedures to participate in the PPH Pilot Program.

For the purpose of giving certain flexibilities to the applicants, both networks decided to follow the “Mottainai” and the “PCT- PPH” modalities.

According to the PPH MOTTAINAI modality, an applicant can request to expedite its patent examination process at OLE using the results of the OEE, regardless of the office in which the first deposit occurs, provided that the OEE and OLE have signed a PPH MOTTAINAI agreement. By eliminating the directional requirement of the original PPH model, this alternative relaxes the requirements related to the order in which the applications were filed and the priority which they claimed.

Regarding the PCT- PPH, the OLE could utilize the positive results obtained in the PCT international phase to request accelerated processing in the national phase. In particular, in this modality OLE´s patent examiners can use the following work products:

  • the written opinion of the International Searching Authority (ISA),
  • the written opinion of the International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA), or
  • the international preliminary examination report issued within the framework of the PCT, subject to certain conditions.

In this region, WIPO has designated INPI (Brazil) and INAPI (Chile) as ISA/IPEA offices. According to this, the country members of the Pacific Alliance and PROSUR may benefit from the international PCT work elaborated by those offices.

To get a closer look at the system, let’s now see how the Pacific Alliance PPH system has worked for the Mexican inventor Sergio Fernando Grijalva, who was the first applicant within the PPH of the Pacific Alliance in filing and obtaining a patent granted.

His application was filed on March 3rd, 2016 in the National Institute of Industrial Property (INAPI). Once the PPH was requested, it was necessary to check if the application met the requirements set in the INAPI- IMPI’s guide to participate, which are:

  • The Chilean and the Mexican application must be equivalent, which means that they must have the same initial date, either the same priority date or the same filing date.
  • The corresponding application must have been examined substantively and have one or more claims considered by IMPI as patentable/ allowable.
  • All claims submitted for INAPI’S examination -as originally filed or as modified- must sufficiently correspond to one or more of the claims found patentable/ allowable by IMPI.
  • The application filed before INAPI shall has been published in the Official Gazette.
  • The substantive examination of the application of INAPI has not yet begun. In other words, the PPH must be requested before the examiner is appointed.

In the present case, the Mexican applicant was required to modify his application before INAPI as to make its claims sufficiently corresponding to the ones granted by IMPI. Thanks to this correction, the research and examination results done by IMPI could be used during INAPI´s patent prosecution.

As result of the prosecution of this patent by the PPH, the substantive examination process was executed in less than 3 months, which contributed to grant the patent in less than 12 months, rather than the 36 months that non-contentious patent application may take.

As we have seen, the existing PPH networks in Latin America can contribute effectively to speed up the substantive examination process of the participating offices, by avoiding the repetition of unnecessary administrative actions, while at the same time reduce related institutional and applicants’ costs. Moreover, and not previously mentioned, using these services do not, as a general rule, require additional fees.

For all of the reasons above mentioned, companies and inventors are encouraged to benefit from the existing PPH schemes. As for this purpose, if you are seeking patent protection internationally, you are highly recommended to verify the PPH agreements of those countries you are planning to expand your patent protection, as well as check out the modalities they adopted (i.e. “Mottainai” and “PCT- PPH”), as they can provide you an additional chance to successfully accomplish your patent registration in Latin America.

Origin Mark: A tool which aggregates value to unique Chilean products

Maximiliano Santa Cruz Scantlebury
National Director of the National Institute of Industrial Property – INAPI

In early September of 2015, the President of Chile Michelle Bachelet officially presented the new image of Origin Mark, the result of a collaborative work between the National Institute of Industrial Property (INAPI) and Fundación Imagen de Chile. Three months later, the Origin Mark acknowledged the Tomato from Limache. The new face on this successful program is not a simple whim. It responds to a strongly belief to position the program, recognizing our traditions and customs, as well as entrepreneurs, farmers and artisans.

In the first place, the Origin Mark pursues consumers on a clear manner to easily notice the products recognized for being unique, having a certain quality and enjoying a high local ties. Every day customer assigns a greater value to product origin and the making method they are consuming. Thanks to the linkage provides by the Origin Mark is easier to foreground in the market those products that enhance local work.

During the last couple of years it is not a coincides that Chilean food restaurants and large supermarket chains have decided to offer local product with added value; in the past those were very difficult to find, such as Chiloe Potatoes or Azapa Olives. There is a global tendency to set the eyes in similar local products. There are many blue cheeses; however to the experts there is only one Gorgonzola (Italy), just one Roquefort (France) and one Stilton (England). Nowadays, in Chile everyone acknowledge the Lemon from Pica (a small village in the north of Chile) as unique and customers are willing to pay a premium for it instead of the generic lemon.

On the other hand, the producer, thanks to our program, takes a favorable position in the market, especially when the offer is the result of an associated process. For example: the Salt from Cáhuil, Boyeruca and Lo Valdivia, which before to receive their Origin Denomination (O.D.) was selling in bulk at the cost price; today they are in the supermarkets, gourmet stores and recently made their first exportation to Spain.

Mainly when a product has the Origin Denomination or Geographical Indication (G.I.) -both under the Origin Mark program-, legal protection from unfair competition prevails. Also enables rightful owners to prevent third parties to misrepresent their products as coming from the geographical area covered by such types of industrial property. In other words, avoids the “pig in a poke”.

Definitively, the country provides a strong signal by this program, implicitly expressing their commitment to preserve their traditions. Thus, leads to a strong impetus to entrepreneurship and productive development, especially among local communities.

Therefore, the efforts have not only focused in guiding the new applicants during the process, but also strategies has been designed to offer better visibility to protect products, through G.I., O.D., Collective Trademark or Certificated Trademark. This aims to support our producers to take place in trade fair and show their products at the highest level, to later be used by chefs and experts around the globe.

Today at the entry of small Chilean villages of La Ligua and Pomaire, there are sideboards notifying drivers entering a zone with Origin Marks products. The same will happen in every place associated to the Origin Mark. Hence it has begun to lay the foundations of new tourist routes, from the recognition by INAPI and our program. Origin Mark definitively leaves its footprint.

Nuestro interés por patentar en el extranjero

Maximiliano Santa Cruz Scantlebury
National Director of the National Institute of Industrial Property – INAPI

Han pasado poco más de dos años desde que el Instituto Nacional de Propiedad Industrial, INAPI, empezara a operar como Administración encargada de búsqueda y examen preliminar internacional (ISA/IPEA) del Tratado de Cooperación en materia de Patentes (PCT), tanto para los solicitantes chilenos como para aquellos pertenecientes a los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, miembros de PCT.

El sistema PCT es la columna vertebral del registro de patentes internacionales. Es el Tratado más importante en materia de tramitación de patentes. Chile ingresó a este Tratado en 2009, y actualmente 148 países son miembros, y de ésos solamente 21 son ISA/IPEA (Autoridades de búsqueda y examen preliminar internacional), una categoría que habilita a emitir una opinión que puede ser utilizada por las oficinas de patentes de los restantes países miembros del tratado. Una de esas 21 oficinas es el INAPI, lo que la hace la segunda en la región en conjunto con la oficina de Brasil y la segunda en tener como idioma de trabajo el español, junto a la oficina Española.

Durante el primer año que INAPI ha funcionado como ISA/IPEA, desde el 22 de octubre de 2014 a diciembre de 2015, se presentaron 169 solicitudes internacionales PCT que designaron a INAPI como ISA, de las cuales 123 fueron chilenas y el resto de países latinoamericanos, quienes eligieron y confiaron en INAPI para realizar búsquedas internacionales.

Al respecto, debo destacar que de las solicitudes que nos han designaron como ISA/IPEA en ese periodo, 44 corresponden a universidades chilenas (más 5 extranjeras). Ese número es muy alto, y reafirma las cifras que se tuvieron durante ese período como Oficina Receptora, en donde 22 solicitudes de un total de 90 que se recibieron (equivalente a un 24,4%) fueron de universidades nacionales. Estos números superan claramente en forma porcentual las cifras globales respecto del patentamiento de universidades en PCT y, por otra parte, confirma el acierto de INAPI de fijar tasas diferenciadas y de menor valor para las casas de estudios superiores, como una manera de facilitar y promover la acción de las universidades en la innovación. Ello queda demostrado con las solicitudes presentadas por universidades con menos experiencia en el patentamiento de sus innovaciones, como la Universidad de Talca, la Universidad Andrés Bello y la Universidad del Biobío, las que se unen a otras ya más consolidadas como la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, la Universidad de Concepción y la Universidad de Santiago.

Las universidades son la fuente primaria de la mayoría de las innovaciones tecnológicas y son el puente perfecto para establecer un intercambio de doble vía entre la investigación por un lado y los negocios y la comercialización por el otro. En Chile las universidades están haciendo un buen esfuerzo en patentar y que deberían seguir haciendo y promoviendo.

La generación de nuevo conocimiento a través de la actividad científica de las universidades es un instrumento fundamental para llegar al desarrollo económico, social y cultural. Chile posee una tradición científica que lo sitúa en posiciones de vanguardia en términos de productividad a nivel latinoamericano y eso es lo que reflejan estas cifras.

Quiero decir que en INAPI estamos muy satisfechos con el número de solicitudes que nos han designado durante dicho período como ISA/IPEA de PCT, ya que ello da cuenta de la alta confianza que despierta INAPI en la comunidad de la Propiedad Industrial tanto chilena como de la región y a la vez nos genera una enorme responsabilidad con aquellos solicitantes que confiaron en nosotros para prestarles un servicio de búsqueda de calidad y eficiente.

La marca: una herramienta para la toma de decisiones

Carolina Belmar
Trademark Subdirector at INAPI

Día a día nos vemos rodeados de una abundante oferta de productos y servicios, más o menos similares, entre los cuales debemos decidir cuál de ellos elegimos. En este escenario, las marcas ayudan a diferenciar y distinguir unos de otros.

El origen de las marcas se remonta a la antigüedad, cuando los artesanos reproducían sus firmas o “marcas” en los productos y, si bien en un principio, buscaba indicar propiedad, con el desarrollo del intercambio comercial ha evolucionado para servir como identificador del origen de los productos y servicios que se ofrecen en el mercado. En este sentido, la marca es un elemento que ayuda a ordenar el mercado en tanto busca evitar la confusión en el público consumidor.

En Chile, las marcas comerciales se encuentran reguladas en el Título II de la Ley 19.039 de Propiedad Industrial, que señala que bajo la denominación de marca comercial se comprende “Todo signo que sea susceptible de representación gráfica capaz de distinguir en el mercado productos, servicios o establecimientos industriales o comerciales. Tales signos podrán consistir en palabras, incluidos los nombres de personas, letras, números, elementos figurativos tales como imágenes, gráficos, símbolos, combinaciones de colores, sonidos, así como también, cualquier combinación estos signos”.

Las marcas, por tanto, pueden incluir nombres de fantasía (Kodak para material fotográfico), figuras (piénsese en esa especie de tic que utiliza la marca deportiva Nike), sonidos (recuérdese los acordes en guitarra eléctrica de la compañía Virgin Mobile) o combinaciones de unos u otros.

La marca es percibida como un elemento de identidad en la extensa variedad de productos y servicios ofertados en el mercado, contribuye a la transparencia y favorece la competencia. La marca, además, puede servir para señalar que un determinado producto es depositario de ciertas connotaciones -negativas o positivas, según el cliente-, confrontándose con otras en el proceso de comercialización. Las experiencias de los consumidores, respecto de un determinado producto o servicio, le permitirán en sus decisiones futuras definir rápidamente la elección de uno por sobre otro. En esa decisión, la marca cumple un rol fundamental, facilitando la identificación y finalmente la adquisición.

Un producto que posee ciertas cualidades adquiere a través del tiempo un prestigio definido, que podrá potenciarse y mantenerse gracias a la acción de una marca posicionada. Esta reputación se hace extensiva no sólo al producto sino además a quien lo elabora, e incluso podría llegar a identificar a quienes lo consumen.

Una marca que se mantiene y consolida en el mercado es entonces un agente silencioso y eficaz de la procedencia, a la vez que como signo distintivo comunica cualidades y atributos del bien que se comprará o del servicio que se obtendrá. Por tanto, es capaz de desarrollar una especie de “personalidad exclusiva”, capacitada para prestigiar a fabricantes y consumidores.

Frente a la potencial adquisición de un producto o servicio y ante la multiplicidad de opciones, uno de los primeros elementos que atrae a la mayoría de las personas, es la marca. De allí que, en algunos casos, ha llegado a transformarse en un símbolo que entrega, o definitivamente niega, la calidad y confianza de los consumidores.

De las múltiples marcas que se usan profusamente en el mercado; sin embargo, sólo aquellas que han sido registradas cuentan con el derecho exclusivo de usar ese signo distintivo en el mercado para los productos o servicios en que ha sido registrado.

Mayores informaciones en http://www.inapi.cl

Radiografía (rápida) de la propiedad industrial en Chile durante el primer año de INAPI como Autoridad ISA/IPEA

Eurochile
Fundación Empresarial

Cuarenta de las 155 solicitudes de patentes internacionales que ha gestionado INAPI en su primer año como organismo encargado de Búsqueda y Examen Preliminar Internacional corresponden a casas de estudios superiores.

De Chile, América Latina y el Caribe pueden provenir las solicitudes que desde hace un año puede gestionar el Instituto Nacional de Propiedad Industrial de Chile, INAPI, como Autoridad ISA/IPEA. Bajo este estatus realiza análisis preliminares, como identificar documentos publicados que puedan influir en la patentabilidad de una invención y emitir una opinión acerca del cumplimiento de los requisitos.

En el primer año de funcionamiento con este nuevo rol, INAPI recibió 155 solicitudes internacionales de patentes, de las cuales 40 fueron de universidades chilenas. “Hoy en día INAPI es la puerta de entrada al sistema internacional de patentes”, afirmó al respecto el director nacional del organismo, Maximiliano Santa Cruz, en una columna publicada por el sitio web de INAPI.

A nivel regional, el instituto es la segunda oficina en tener esta categoría después de Brasil, y a nivel global es la segunda de habla hispana, luego de España.

A estas cifras se le suman las generadas este año en materia de registro de marcas, las que a septiembre llegan a 31.047. Los datos muestran un positivo panorama para la propiedad intelectual en Chile. El año pasado el país se ubicó en el lugar 24 del ranking IPRI (International Property Rights Index), elaborado por Property Rights Alliance, lo que lo sitúa en el primer lugar en la región.

Dado el panorama internacional de una creciente globalización comercial, la propiedad intelectual se ha convertido en un tema central para los principales mercados. En este contexto, INAPI, junto con la Fundación Empresarial Eurochile, son socios del proyecto Latin America IPR Helpdesk, que depende de la Dirección General Investigación e Innovación (programa COSME) de la Comunidad Europea. Esta iniciativa busca “facilitar la expansión de las pymes europeas interesadas en operar en América Latina, a través del aumento de conocimiento del uso y reforzamiento del sistema de propiedad intelectual y de los derechos de propiedad intelectual”.

“El fortalecimiento actual de la propiedad intelectual, sumado al hecho de que las pymes puedan aprender a utilizarlos de manera estratégica en sus negocios en la región, redundará en mejores condiciones para que empresas europeas puedan instalarse en nuestros países, lo que trae innumerables beneficios tanto en generación de empleo e innovación, como en intercambio de conocimientos y tecnología”, asegura Ivonne Palma, experta en propiedad intelectual de Eurochile.

Ventajas de las patentes

El registro de patentes constituye un fuerte incentivo para las personas e instituciones que han invertido esfuerzos en invención. Las patentes significan un reconocimiento por su creatividad y recompensas materiales por sus invenciones comercializables.

En Chile, la ley reconoce que el dueño de una patente goza de exclusividad territorial, para producir, vender o comercializar y explotar de cualquier manera el invento protegido. El titular de la patente tiene el derecho de decidir quién puede utilizar la invención patentada durante el período de protección, concertando permiso de licencia a terceros, según términos establecidos de mutuo acuerdo.

La norma también establece que en caso de que terceros comercialicen la invención protegida sin un consentimiento, el titular podrá ejercer acciones legales, incluso por el período de tramitación del derecho.

Datos de noviembre de 2015.

Gold Medal for Chile

Maximiliano Santa Cruz Scantlebury
National Director of the National Institute of Industrial Property – INAPI

In 1986 the world heard the breaking news on the field of medicine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of the first recombinant vaccine, product developed to fight the Hepatitis B virus, a potentially mortal infection.

The Chilean biochemist Pablo Valenzuela Valdés was behind this historic scientific achievement. He became a referent of the genetic engineering as well as a pioneer on the technology transfer at the University of California, San Francisco.

The invention was patented and then licensed to pharmaceutical firms who were responsible for distributing the vaccine to dozens of countries. The license agreement has become the most prolific in term of economic results for the University of California, San Francisco in almost two decades, allowing funding new discoveries and further technology development.

Later the protection of industrial property on the vaccine, based on research about yeast, produced a number of tests which transformed the blood banks in a safer source.

Dr. Valenzuela´s contribution still gathers praise. On last October 22nd he became the first Chilean scientist to be awarded with the Gold Medal for Inventors, given by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The award was promoted by The National Institute of Industrial Property of Chile (INAPI), due to Valenzuela significant contribution to the creation of new knowledge and its appropriation, which has meant a truly entrepreneurship engine for development.

The award had a special meaning for the patent system, as was given at the first anniversary since INAPI began operations as International Searching and Preliminary Examining Authority (ISA/IPEA) under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). This new role, reserved only for 21 national agencies in the world, has meant a stimulus for Chilean universities and inventors in order to globalize their inventions and reach bigger markets.

During this year, 11 countries from Latin America and the Caribbean, which are PCT members, have designated the Chilean office as the mandated office to search and conduct the preliminary examination on patents.

Thus, the Chilean agency of industrial property provides services beyond their borders as well as Chile paves the way for the proliferation of new inventors who might impact the world with their technological developments as Pablo Valenzuela did almost three decades ago. He is the undisputed winner of the WIPO Gold Medal.

PCT: The backbone of the international patent system

Maximiliano Santa Cruz Scantlebury
National Director of the National Institute of Industrial Property – INAPI

It has been over six years from the entry of Chile to one of the most important and successful agreements of intellectual property. The 2nd of June of 2009 our country was incorporated into the 148 member nations of the Patent Cooperation Treatment (known as PCT), managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and which saw the light over 40 years ago, in 1970.

Practically all of our major commercial partners like United States, the European Union, Brazil and China are PCT members. In addition, it can be highlighted that countries with very different economic developments such as Australia, Mexico, Canada, South Africa, Japan, Malaysia and India are members as well. This proves the trust put in this international agreement, which also foster innovation and technology transfer, through the free and efficient access to an enormous database of technology information on patents.

The incorporation of Chile to the PCT has completed a triad of significant events that have strongly impacted on the intellectual property system in our country. Besides the implementation in Chile of the intellectual property agreement from the World Trade Organization´s (WTO), during 2005, as well as the signing of a couple of free trade agreements, remarkably the one with United States, the PCT has closed a cycle of important transformations within our intellectual property system.

The PCT is a strategic tool in two aspects. On one hand, facilitates the patenting of our nationals overseas; as counterpart the foreigners obtain a much more easy access to patent in Chile. On the other hand, expedites the work of industrial property offices and improves the quality on granted patents.

This agreement concentrates a large interest from the Chilean innovators, expressed on the 48 patent applications at INAPI during the very first year of the enactment entry. Such figure is one of the highest at the Latin American level, during the first year of the enactment of this treaty.

Before this agreement, Chileans should make the patent application on every single country where they wanted to have protection, immediately after the first 12 months to its application in Chile; in that form, the invention still was considered a novelty, and if they would intend to use the PCT, Chileans should associate or find administrative loopholes.

Nowadays Chile is part of the PCT and national innovators can simply apply with an only solicitude at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INAPI), which will be considered as simultaneously applied in each of the 148 country members of this treaty.

This allows saving costs, because they are not required to make multiple translations on the application, nor undergo to diverse procedures and neither make payments on multiple currencies according to where they would like to protect. Today they can apply in Spanish, in a single procedure to be paid in Chilean pesos.

The PCT is a good example of globalization and internationalization of the intellectual property system. Its virtue resides in the enhancement of the international patenting and the cooperation of the industrial property offices, and at the same time it does it respecting the whole sovereignty of the member countries which can freely determine the patentability conditions and deciding whether an invention is finally patentable.

The PCT is a crucial tool to achieve the goals of the Ministry of Economy in Chile, about strengthening the institutional framework for intellectual and industrial protection, promoting the invention as well as patenting among Chilean scientists and entrepreneurs.

If the WTO intellectual property agreement in 1994, known as TRIPS or ADPIC, was probably the most transcendent milestone of the past century for substantive harmonization, the PCT was the equivalent on the matter of cooperation and infrastructure on the global patent system. So much so that Francis Gurry, current WIPO Director General, has called it the “backbone of the international patent system”.

Intellectual Property is an intangible with significant economic potential

“Chile has built a balanced property system that seeks to protect the interests of creators and innovators, as well as users and society as a whole,” says Martin Correa, Head of the Intellectual Property Department of the General Directorate of International Economic Relations (Direcon) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Department coordinates and conveys Chile’s position on international negotiations before the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Intellectual Property is precisely the focus of the Latin America Intellectual Property SME Helpdesk project, which belongs to the Directorate General for Research and Innovation (COSME Program) of the European Union. The Eurochile Foundation is a partner of this project.

The subject is highly relevant, since a wider knowledge and respect for intellectual property rights leads to improved opportunities for Chilean companies.

“Today, IP has been gaining importance, since it has been proven that it may be an intangible with a significant economic potential not only for consolidated and larger companies, but also for small and medium enterprises. In this sense, knowing the value of IP enables SMEs to value their trademarks and generate spin-offs when granting licenses,” states Correa.

“Additionally, having an invention patent, for example, can be a plus when applying for loans to continue the development of an SME or even for expanding. Finally, IP can encourage the sale of traditional niche products by granting geographical indications. They create communities among small producers of the same product by recognizing its added value. As you can see, being aware and knowing the economic potential of IP can allow SMEs to make better business decisions and to benefit from the profits IP can generate,” he adds.

– What is the state of Intellectual Property protection in Chile?

“The country has made great strides in recent years, introducing major changes to the intellectual property system, such as the enactment of Law 17,336 on Intellectual Property, the reform of Law 19,039 on Industrial Property and the creation of the National Industrial Property Institute (Inapi, in Spanish). There has also been progress in creating tools to bring people closer to IP through programs such as the origin seal and Inapi Proyecta, as well as in boosting the role of the intellectual rights keeper belonging to the Chilean Libraries, Archives and Museums Board (Dibam, in Spanish).”

– What are the pending issues in this regard?

“Chile has a strong intellectual property system with clear and strict rules, comparable to the standards of major international institutions that cover these issues, such as the WTO and the WIPO. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that new technologies and recent innovations in the digital environment pose new challenges not only for Chile, but for the international community. It should address the interaction between IP and these new developments.”

– What is Chile’s level of compliance regarding international agreements and obligations on this matter?

“Chile has fulfilled its international obligations on intellectual property. In this sense, the current institutional framework in Chile reflects the standards described in our free trade agreements (FTA). It even went beyond what was agreed on the FTAs. However, there are still some issues to be addressed internally, derived mainly from the FTA with the US. One example is complying with technological protection measures linked to copyright, which has not been addressed yet. Therefore, Direcon’s efforts have been instrumental in coordinating thematic working tables to address this issue internally in the near future.”

– What are the most common problems for a foreign company wishing to do business with Chile, in terms of IP?

“Even though the rules on intellectual property in Chile are relatively similar to those in most developed countries, there are some differences that must be taken into consideration when doing business. They have to do with the territorial nature of IP. In this regard, it is important to be aware of certain basics, such as the civilian origin of Chile’s legal tradition and the balance of our system when pondering the interests of creators and innovators, and the interests of users and society as a whole. They differ in each country. Therefore, it is indispensable to learn about the system as a whole in order to enjoy the economic benefits of IP in all its dimensions.”